Marc Andreesen (he of web development fame) outlines the most obvious eight business models for the news for now and in the future, as reported by Justin Fox in this month’s issue of The Atlantic.
It occurred to me when reading these, that libraries are also looking at different models of raising funds, but not always with a clear framework. This might be interesting for a beginning discussion.
- Advertising. This is obvious in the news, less obvious in libraries yet we have taken it up as urban public libraries sell space on library cards for a set period of time, accept sponsorships for programs (summer reading comes to mind) and advertise book sellers on their web site whereby customers can order a title not readily available through their local library. But what do we mean by advertising? What are our policies? What are our goals in developing an advertising revenue stream?
- Subscriptions. We don’t tend to have subscription except that the movement toward the term “members” rather than “patrons” or “customers” tends to denote a subscription model, whether through a dedicated fee (the province of Alberta, e.g., requires charges for library cards which some systems cover) or recognition that tax dollars are a levy and the registration fee providing formal membership.
- Premium content. Now this would be an anathema for most libraries (think advocacy for net neutrality) but we do provide premium services for a fee. And this is happening more and more. (Next week there will be a guest blog on fee for service in a public library.) The most common would be services for business. But others include special programs. And then there are fines: is this a premium (extended use fee) or a punishment (fines like the police)—or a micropayment, see below.
- Conferences and events. There seems to be a large market here, sometimes taken up by community centers and other not-for-profit organizations. I wonder how long it will be before we are offering special events (other than our usual fundraisers and used book sales which fall into this category). Many community issues could be addressed in this way for nominal fee, within policies of course and with clearly articulated costs (overhead, e.g.).
- Cross-media (your news generates books movies etc.). There has been talk for years of the library as publisher but it has never been taken up as a business model really.
- Crowd-funding. We may need to investigate this further and develop some of our specialized software and initiatives and innovations through crowd funding. It would certain provide a platform and profile…
- Micropayments. This is usually defined as a payment of a few dollars. We are masters at this with fines, e.g., but I suspect that most on-site payments cost more to collect than they are worth (but it teaches them a lesson! Decidedly the moral high ground…).
- Philanthropy. We are getting better at this. We are even collecting evidence and coming to realize that the biggest donors tend to be non-users so we have broadened our appeals. Many directors/CEOs see this as an important role and, especially in academic libraries, are moving vigorously in this area, of necessity.
We need to talk more openly and frankly about revenue, beyond the local council or broader institution. We need to set policies and establish responsibilities and targets for improved support. This may be one way of looking at it.